List of possible articlеs

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  • Frequency: The number of cycles per second of a sound wave, measured in Hertz (Hz).
  • Amplitude: The strength or intensity of a sound, often measured in decibels (dB).
  • Interference: Interaction of two or more sound waves, leading to their reinforcement (constructive interference) or cancellation (destructive interference), altering the overall amplitude and frequency characteristics of the resulting sound.
  • Resonance: Vibration of an object or a system at its natural frequency in response to an external force, amplifying the oscillations and leading to a significant increase in amplitude.
  •  Phase: The relative position of a point in a wave cycle and is crucial in audio as it determines the interaction and alignment of different waves, impacting their reinforcement or cancellation when combined.
  • Wavelength: Physical length of one complete cycle of a wave, measured from one crest (peak) to the next.
  • Reflection: The change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
  • Particle velocity: The speed and direction at which particles in a medium move in response to a passing sound wave, representing the physical motion of the air particles in acoustics.


  •  Reverberation (verlinken): The persistence of sound in a space after the original sound has stopped, caused by reflections of the sound waves off the surfaces of the space.
  • Absorption: The process by which materials or surfaces absorb sound energy, converting it into heat and reducing the sound's intensity or echo in a given environment.
  • Diffraction: The bending of sound waves around obstacles or the spreading of sound waves as they encounter small openings, allowing sound to reach areas that would be in a shadow region if the waves traveled in a straight line.
  • Room acoustics: The behaviour of sound in enclosed or partially-enclosed spaces.
  • Sound propagation: The way in which sound waves spread and travel through various mediums, determining their speed, direction, and intensity as they move from the source to surrounding areas.
  • Decibel: A unit which expresses the ratio of two values of a power or root-power on a logarithmic scale.
  • Dereverberation: The process of reducing or removing the reverberant, echo-like quality from an audio signal, often used to enhance speech intelligibility or improve the clarity of recorded sounds.
  • Free field: An open, unobstructed area where sound waves propagate without encountering any reflecting surfaces or obstacles, allowing them to spread freely in all directions.
  • Standing Wave: The result of two waves of the same frequency and amplitude traveling in opposite directions.


  • Threshold of hearing: The lowest intensity level at which a sound can be heard, usually measured in decibels.
  • Threshold of pain: The intensity level at which a sound becomes physically painful to listen to, usually measured in decibels.
  • Directional hearing: The ability of humans and animals to determine the source or direction of a sound based on differences in sound arrival time, intensity, and frequency at each ear.
  • Localization: The listeners ability to identify the location of a detected sound in direction and distance.
  • Interaural time difference: The difference in the time it takes for a sound to reach each ear, allowing the brain to determine the direction of the sound source, especially for low-frequency sounds.
  • Interaural level difference: The difference in sound intensity at each ear, allowing the brain to determine the direction of the sound source, especially at high frequencies.
  • Spatial release from masking: The process where the auditory system uses directionally dependent cues of a target and a masker to segregate the target signal.
  • Binaural unmasking: A phenomenon in which differences in the sound arriving at the two ears, interaural differences, can assist in the detection or identification of sound in noise.
  • Better-ear listening: A listening strategy for improving speech-in-noise understanding by extracting the information from the ear with the better SNR.
  • Cone of confusion: The imaginary cone extending outward from the ear along the interaural axis and representing sound source locations producing the same interaural differences.
  • Pitch: The perceived frequency of a sound wave, determining how high or low a tone sounds.
  • Bark Scale: A psychoacoustic scale that reflects the human ear's perception of different frequencies, designed to more accurately represent the way humans hear pitch, especially at higher frequencies.
  • Head shadow: Effect that refers to the phenomenon where the human head obstructs sound waves, causing a reduction in sound intensity on the side of the head opposite to the sound source, contributing to the brain's ability to determine the direction of a sound.

Signal Processing

  • Waveform: A visual representation of a sound wave, showing how the amplitude of the sound changes over time.
  • Equalization: The process of adjusting the balance of frequencies in a sound or recording.
  • Compression: The process of reducing the dynamic range of a sound or recording by reducing the volume of the loudest parts.
  • Limiting: A type of compression that limits the maximum level of a sound or recording.
  • Codec:  A software or device used to encode and decode digital audio and video data.
  • Filtering: The process of removing or reducing certain frequencies from a sound or recording.
  • High-pass filter: A type of filter that allows high frequencies to pass through but attenuates low frequencies.
  • Low-pass filter: A type of filter that allows low frequencies to pass through but attenuates high frequencies.
  • Band-pass filter: A type of filter that allows a range of frequencies to pass through but attenuates frequencies outside of that range.
  • Notch filter: A type of filter that attenuates a narrow range of frequencies.
  • Expander: A device or software that increases the dynamic range of a sound or recording by increasing the volume of the quieter parts.
  • Noise Gate: A device or software that reduces the volume of a sound or recording below a certain threshold.
  • Reverb: An effect that simulates the sound of an audio signal being played back in a particular space, such as a room or hall.
  • Delay: An effect that repeats the audio signal at a later time, creating an echo-like effect.
  • Chorus: An effect that creates a sense of multiple instruments or voices playing or singing in unison.
  • Flanger: An effect that creates a sweeping, swooshing sound by combining the audio signal with a slightly delayed version of itself.
  • Phaser: An effect that creates a sweeping, whooshing sound by combining the audio signal with a version of itself that has been phase-shifted.
  • Distorsion: An effect that intentionally distorts the audio signal, creating a rough or overdriven sound.
  • Overdrive: A type of distortion that creates a warm, fuzzy sound.
  • Fuzz: A type of distortion effect in audio processing, producing a heavily distorted and sustain-rich sound, often associated with electric guitars.

Recording Technology

  • Dynamic Range: The difference in decibels between the loudest and softest parts of a sound or recording.
  • Noise floor: The lowest level of ambient noise in a system or environment, below which it is not possible to hear any additional sound.
  • Sample Rate: The number of samples of audio taken per second, measured in Hertz (Hz).
  • Bit Depth: The number of bits used to represent each sample in a digital audio recording.
  • Audio Interface: A device that connects to a computer and allows the input and output of audio signals.
  • Mixer: A device or software used to combine multiple audio sources and adjust their levels, panning, and other parameters.
  • Channel: A separate audio signal, such as a microphone or instrument, that can be processed independently.
  • Microphone: A device that converts sound waves into an electrical audio signal.
  • Phantom Power: A method of supplying power to a microphone through the same cable that carries the audio signal.
  • Artificial Head: A mannequin-like device equipped with microphones placed in the ears, used for recording audio in a way that simulates human hearing.
  • Anechoic Chamber: A special chamber that completely absorbs sound and electromagnetic waves, therefore rendering the room unusually silent to a disturbingly high degree.

Reproduction Technology

  • Mono: A type of audio recording or playback that uses a single channel.
  • Stereo: A type of audio recording or playback that uses two channels, typically representing left and right speakers.
  • Sourround Sound: A type of audio recording or playback that uses multiple channels to create a more immersive listening experience.
  • Headphones: A device worn over the ears that allows the user to listen to audio privately.
  • Speaker: A device that converts an electrical audio signal into sound waves that can be heard by the listener.

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